To measure the exchange-value of commodities by the labour-time they contain, the different kinds of labour have to be reduced to uniform, homogeneous, simple labour, in short to labour of uniform quality, whose only difference, therefore, is quantity.
This reduction appears to be an abstraction, but it is an abstraction which is made every day in the social process of production…
The characteristics of this average labour are different in different countries and different historical epochs, but in any particular society it appears as something given.
1. Socialism and communism are the same ideology
Communism is but an extreme form of socialism. From the ideological standpoint, there is no substantial difference between the two. In fact, the communist Soviet Union called itself the Union of Soviet Socialist…
April 22, 1870: Birthday of Comrade V.I. Lenin, founder of the Bolshevik party, leader of the Russian socialist revolution, great teacher of the world’s workers and oppressed peoples.
"We do not claim that Marx knew or Marxists know the road to socialism down to the last detail. It would be nonsense to claim anything of the kind. What we know is the direction of this road, and the class forces that follow it; the specific, practical details will come to light only through the experience of the millions when they take things into their own hands.”
- V.I. Lenin, "Peasants and Workers," 1917